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China Just Launched Its Huge And Incredibly Quickly Built Amphibious Assault Ship

体型巨大,进度惊人:中国首艘075两栖攻击舰顺利下水



Some five months after the first pictures emerged of its keel under construction, China has launched its first Type 075 landing helicopter dock amphibious assault ship, or LHD, at the Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai. This achievement comes just days before the country marks the 70th anniversary of Communist state's founding. The speed with which the Chinese have been able to execute its construction is as impressive as the ship's size. The vessel will significantly increase the People's Liberation Army Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities, and the China State Shipbuilding Corporation is already building a second example.

在70周年国庆前夕,中国的第一艘075型两栖登陆舰于上海的沪东造船厂成功下水。该舰从龙骨建造照片的首次披露,到完成下水,只花了短短的五个月时间。它的建造速度,正如其庞大的体型一样,令人印象深刻。该舰的加入将大幅提升中国海军的两栖作战能力。与此同时,075二号舰的建造也在如火如荼地进行着。

Dockworkers at Hudong-Zhonghua launched the still-unnamed Type 075 LHD after a ceremony on Sept. 25, 2019. Images began to emerge online of the ship's keel under construction between April and May 2019, though it is unclear when the China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) formally began work on the ship. Workers will now complete the final phases of construction with the vessel in the water. There is no word yet on when the Chinese expect it to head out for its first sea trials or actually enter service with the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).

我们尚不清楚它开工的具体日期。直到在今年的4-5月,一些照片才陆续在网络上出现。9月25日,在隆重的仪式过后,这艘尚未命名的战舰在船厂工人的帮助下顺利入水,剩余的晒装工作将在水面中完成。截至目前,尚未有任何消息透露它将于何时海试,或者何时服役。



The Type 075 is also bigger and more capable than the Type 071 amphibious transport docks, or LPDs, which are presently the PLAN's largest operational amphibious warfare ships. The Type 071, which displaces around 25,000 tons, has a smaller flight deck at the stern and hangar space for up to four Z-8 heavy transport helicopters.

和中国海军现役最大的两栖作战舰艇071型船坞登陆舰相比,075在尺寸以及性能上都有较大幅度的提升。与其相比,071的排水量只有约25000吨,船尾的飞行甲板更小,其机库最多只能容纳4架直-8重型运输直升机。

By comparison, the new LHD will have a dedicated hangar deck below its flight deck and will reportedly be able to carry between 28 and 30 helicopters of various types, including the Z-8 and the smaller Z-9 utility and light attack helicopters. China does not have any short takeoff and vertical landing capable combat jets at present, but it is at least exploring this possibility and the Type 075 could already have design features to support fixed-wing operations in the future.

075在甲板下方拥有专用的机库。根据报道,它可以容纳28-30架各型直升机,包括直-8和更小的直-9轻型攻击直升机。虽然中国还没有短距起飞或垂直起降的喷气式战机,但是它正在尝试这种可能性,075也很有可能为固定翼战机的使用预留了空间。

It is not clear how many Marines the Type 075 will be able to accommodate, but its full complement will likely be much larger than that of the Type 071, which can carry between 600 and 800 troops, as well as their ground vehicles and other equipment. The U.S. Navy's Wasp class, for example, can carry 1,650 Marines, along with their light armored and unarmored vehicles and other equipment. Similar to the American ships, China's new LHD also has a well deck that can hold multiple Type 726 air cushion landing craft – roughly analogous to the U.S. Navy's LCAC – in order to move personnel, vehicles, and other cargo ashore.

071型船坞登陆舰可以搭载600-800名士兵,包括他们的车辆和装备。我们还不清楚075能够搭载的士兵数量,但可以肯定的是,它会比071多得多。以排水量相仿的美国黄蜂级为例,它可以搭载1650名陆战队员,包括其车辆和装备。此外,和美国的舰艇相似,075载有多艘726型气垫登陆艇,用以运送人员、车辆和其它货物上岸。

The exact armament fit on the Type 075, including systems for self-defense, is also unknown. Reports say that it will include at least two H/PJ-11 30mm close-in weapon systems (CIWS), also known as the Type 730, and a pair of FL-3000N point defense surface-to-air missile systems. Pictures of the ship at its launch ceremony, and in the days and weeks before, show what appears to be at least one FL-3000N in place at the stern and one forward of the ship's island superstructure. A Type 1130 CIWS is also seen amidships on its port side.

对于075的具体设备,包括防卫系统,我们同样一无所知。根据以往的报道,它至少装有两套H/PJ-11型30毫米近防武器系统(也称1130近防炮),以及两套FL-3000N点防御舰空导弹系统(也称海红旗10)。跟据下水时、以及数周前的照片显示,在船尾部分,至少有一座疑似FL-3000N的防空导弹系统已经安装到位,另一座导弹系统位于舰岛的前方,一门1130近防炮则装在了左舷的中部。

Regardless of how much the ship actually displaces and what its exact capabilities are, what may be most impressive about it is China's ability to proceed so fast with its construction. Chinese shipyards have already demonstrated their ability to produce large surface warships with relative rapidity, but work on the Type 075 has progressed at a particularly fast pace. For comparison, it took three years between keel-laying and launch to build the U.S. Navy's second in class USS Tripoli (LHA-7). Also, keep in mind that the U.S. has been building flattop amphibious assault ships for the better part of a century. This is China's first.

不管075确切的排水量和性能如何,最令人印象深刻的是中国的造船速度。事实已经证明,中国的造船厂能以较快的速度建造大型水面战舰。尽管如此,075的进度仍然显得非比寻常。与之相比,为了建造“美国”级两栖攻击舰“的黎波里”号,从铺设龙骨到下水,美国花了三年的时间。更何况美国拥有长达一个世纪的建造两栖攻击舰的经验,而中国则是首次。



This could extend beyond traditional military operations. American amphibious warfare ships have historically been a go-to option for extracting U.S. citizens from countries experiencing sudden and violent upheaval and a vital tool for responding to natural disasters. PLAN amphibious warfare groups built around Type 075s could similarly help rescue Chinese nationals, who are working in ever-increasing numbers in potential hotspots around the world, or respond to humanitarian crisis at home and overseas. China already employs its Type 920 hospital ship as a valuable soft-power tool.

两栖攻击舰的作用不仅仅局限于传统军事层面。在历史上,美国的两栖攻击舰曾经是从动乱国家撤侨的首选,也是应对自然灾害的重要工具。中国海军以075为核心的两栖编队也可以执行类似的任务,帮助全球各地越来越多的中国公民撤离可能的热点地区,或者对国内外的人道主义危机做出响应。中国已经将920型医疗船作为体现自身软实力的有利工具。

With the Type 075's construction proceeding so quickly, it is very possible that the ship will be ready for sea trials relatively soon. At the same time, we may begin to learn more about its exact features in the coming months now that the lead example of the class is in the water and will be getting fitted out.

由于建造工作进展迅速,075进行海试的日期并不遥远。同时,在接下来的数月里,随着晒装工作的进行,我们对它的了解也将更进一步。

No matter what, the Type 075's launch is simply another clear demonstration of China's desire and ability to increase the size and scope of its naval capabilities, with a clear eye toward operations further and further from Chinese shores.

无论如何,中国一直致力于加强海军的规模与实力,075的下水仅仅是这种渴望与能力的又一个缩影。他们的目光早已远离了中国的海岸,并且越来越远。