原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.53370.net 翻译:云飞扬h 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://www.53370.net/bbs/thread-489072-1-1.html



One hundred and fifty years on from the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, what lessons can we draw today about the way he helped achieve Indian independence?

圣雄甘地诞生150周年之时,今天我们可以从中汲取什么教训,以了解他帮助印度实现独立的方式?

He was the ‘great soul’, a modest, saintly man whose campaigns of ‘satyagraha’, non-violent civil disobedience, shook what was then the largest Empire in history to its foundations.

他是“伟大的灵魂”,是一个谦虚的圣人,他的“ satyagraha”(非暴力的公民抗议)运动震撼了当时历史上最大的帝国。

Gandhi took on the might of the British Empire with ‘soul-force’ and won. Does that prove that non-violent civil disobedience is always the way to achieve political goals?

甘地以“灵魂力量”夺取了大英帝国的权力,并取得了胜利。这是否证明了非暴力的公民反抗永远是实现政治目标的途径?



While the Hungarian ‘communist’ government of the late 80s was dominated by people who didn’t believe in communism, similarly there were people administering the British Empire in the 1930s who believed less in old-fashioned empire and more in colonial self-rule, albeit in stages. The problem as B.R. Nanda in his biography ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ (as cited in ‘Mahatma Gandhi and his Apostles’ by Ved Mehta), highlights, is that each British reform/concession “tended to become out-of-date by the time it was actually granted.”

上世纪80年代末,匈牙利的“GC主义”政府由不信仰GC主义的人统治,同样,上世纪30年代大英帝国的统治者也不太相信老式的帝国,而更多地相信殖民地自治,尽管是分阶段的。正如南达在他的传记《圣雄甘地》中所强调的那样,问题在于,英国的每一次改革/让步“往往在实际获得批准时就已经过时了”。

It also helped Gandhi’s cause that he was admired greatly in the colonial power.

这也帮助了甘地的事业,使他在殖民势力中备受钦佩。

That die-hard Empire loyalist Winston Churchill may have infamously described him as a “seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir,” but thankfully there were more enlightened views in the British Establishment, and in society at large.

帝国的死忠分子温斯顿•丘吉尔或许曾将甘地描述为“煽动中间派的神殿律师,现在却假扮成骗子”,这是出了名的,但值得庆幸的是,在英国当政者和整个社会中,有更开明的观点。

On a visit to Britain in 1931, Gandhi met with Lancashire cotton mill workers, whose jobs had been threatened by the Indian boycott of British cotton goods. “He met and charmed everyone, low or high,” says Roderick Matthews, author of ‘Jinnah vs. Gandhi’.

1931年访问英国时,甘地会见了兰开夏棉纺厂的工人,他们的工作受到了印度抵制英国棉织品的威胁。《真纳与甘地》一书的作者罗德里克•马修斯表示:“他遇见并迷倒了所有人,无论地位高低。”

The international situation was also on Gandhi’s side. The ‘anti-imperialist’ US was keen to see the end of the British Empire, so they could move into its lucrative markets. Britain’s withdrawal from India was expedited due to the financial pressures following World War II and the enormous debt owed to the US.

国际形势也站在甘地一边。“反帝国主义”的美国渴望看到大英帝国的终结,这样他们就可以进入大英帝国利润丰厚的市场。由于二战后的财政压力和欠美国的巨额债务,英国加快了从印度的撤军。

His enduring influence could be seen in the US civil rights movement of the 1960s, and in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, where Gandhi had also been involved in anti-racist campaigns earlier. Again, these campaigns, for civil rights and against apartheid, succeeded not just because of the methods used but because of who was on the one side and the international situation. White America realised segregation was wrong. Enough white South Africans too came to the same conclusion about apartheid. But it’s worth remembering that apartheid only ended after the Berlin Wall came down, and there was no longer any ‘threat’ of a communist, Soviet unx-allied post-apartheid RSA.

他持久的影响力可以从20世纪60年代的美国民权运动和南非的反种族隔离斗争中看到,在南非,甘地早些时候也参与了反种族主义运动。同样,这些争取民权和反对种族隔离的运动之所以成功,不仅因为所使用的方法,而且因为世卫组织站在一边以及国际局势。美国白人意识到种族隔离是错误的。足够多的南非白人对种族隔离也得出了同样的结论。但值得记住的是,种族隔离直到柏林墙倒塌后才结束,不再有GC主义者、苏联盟友、后种族隔离时代的任何“威胁”。

While it would be overly simplistic to say that Gandhism can work anywhere, it would be equally wrong to dismiss what can be achieved by ‘soul-force’, even on what appears to be infertile ground.

如果说甘地主义在任何地方都行得通,那就太过简单了,而忽视“灵魂力量”所能达到的效果,同样是错误的,即使是在贫瘠的土地上。



“I should think of no person whose undertaking to respect a confidence I should ever have been more ready to accept than his. Measured by human standards, the abrupt cutting short of his life was a tragic deprivation for the country that he loved.” And indeed for the world at large.

“我认为,没有一个人比他更愿意信守诺言。以人类的标准来衡量,他生命的突然结束对他所热爱的国家是一种悲剧性的剥夺。” 对整个世界来说也是如此。